A process is said to be of six-sigma quality if the process mean is at least six standard deviations from the nearest specification. Assume a normally distributed measurement.
(a) If a process mean is centered between the upper and lower specifications at a distance of six standard deviations from each, what is the probability that a product does not meet specifications? Using the result that 0.000001 equals one part per million, express the answer in parts per million.
(b) Because it is difficult to maintain a process mean centered between the specifications, the probability of a product not meeting specifications is often calculated after assuming the process shifts. If the process mean positioned as in part (a) shifts upward by 1.5 standard deviations, what is the probability that a product does not meet specifications? Express the answer in parts per million.